Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as "Tennis Elbow", is the most common overuse syndrome in the elbow. It is a tendinopathy injury involving the extensor muscles of the forearm. These muscles originate on the lateral epicondylar region of the distal humerus. It should be remembered that only 5% of people suffering from tennis elbow relate the injury to tennis! ... Continue Reading →

Maisonneuve Fracture

Maisonneuve fracture refers to a combination of a fracture of the proximal fibula together with an unstable ankle injury (widening of the ankle mortise on x-ray), often comprising ligamentous injury (distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, deltoid ligament) and/or fracture of the medial malleolus. It is caused by pronation external-rotation mechanism. This injury is highly unstable. Essentially all the ligaments and fascia... Continue Reading →


Usually, if there is blood in the eye it's because a tiny blood vessel on the eye has broken open, causing a portion or all of the white of the eye (sclera) to appear bright red. Grade 1 Hyphaema spotted in ED by Joanna Dias This painless blood in the eye is called a subconjunctival hemorrhage; and though... Continue Reading →

Subconjunctival haemorrhage

When small, delicate blood vessels break beneath the tissue covering the white of the eye (conjunctiva), resulting eye redness may mean there is a subconjunctival haemorrhage. A subconjunctival haemorrhage usually is benign, causing no vision problems or significant eye discomfort despite its conspicuous appearance. But eye redness also can be a sign of other types of potentially serious eye... Continue Reading →

Mallet Finger

Commonly an athletic injury, mallet finger occurs when the distal phalanx of the finger is injured. Basketball and netball players often experience jammed fingers, but the injury can occur because of a crushing accident or even because of a laceration to the finger. With mallet finger, the extensor tendon on the back of the finger... Continue Reading →

Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome occurs when excessive pressure builds up inside an enclosed muscle space in the body. Compartment syndrome usually results from bleeding or swelling after an injury. The dangerously high pressure in compartment syndrome impedes the flow of blood to and from the affected tissues. It can be an emergency, requiring surgery to prevent permanent... Continue Reading →

5th metacarpal fracture (Boxer’s fracture)

What is it? A boxer’s fracture is a fracture of the fifth metacarpal bone of the hand, at the metacarpal neck. This is the bone associated with the little finger. When fractured, usually after punching an object like a boxer, it is often angulated and/or displaced requiring reduction and or surgical fixation. Relevant Anatomy The... Continue Reading →

Radial Head Fracture

Non-displaced, closed, radial head fracture with raised anterior and posterior fat pads (Sail sign) Non-displaced, closed, radial head fracture with raised anterior and posterior fat pads (Sail sign) The Sail Sign The sail sign on an elbow x-ray describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat.... Continue Reading →

Elbow Injury Assessment

History As always a detailed history about how the injury happened, will aid the diagnosis. Knowing exactly how a patient landed, the speed in which they were moving and the direction in which they fell will help you to quickly know the likely injury patterns. For example, if a patient fell backwards landing on their... Continue Reading →

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