Chickenpox in Pregnancy

by Rachel Mackenzie, SSN, Practice Nurse Developer What is Chickenpox? Chickenpox is a very contagious infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It mainly affects kids, but adults can get it, too. The telltale sign of chickenpox is a super-itchy skin rash with red blisters. Over the course of several days, the blisters pop and start... Continue Reading →

3rd Degree Heart Block

3rd Degree Heart Block (Complete Heart Block) Overview In complete heart block, there is complete absence of AV conduction – none of the supraventricular impulses are conducted to the ventricles. This one minute video shows what is happening really well. A perfusing rhythm is maintained by a junctional or ventricular escape rhythm as Chris explained in the WhatsApp group. Failing this,... Continue Reading →


Usually, if there is blood in the eye it's because a tiny blood vessel on the eye has broken open, causing a portion or all of the white of the eye (sclera) to appear bright red. Grade 1 Hyphaema spotted in ED by Joanna Dias This painless blood in the eye is called a subconjunctival hemorrhage; and though... Continue Reading →

Subconjunctival haemorrhage

When small, delicate blood vessels break beneath the tissue covering the white of the eye (conjunctiva), resulting eye redness may mean there is a subconjunctival haemorrhage. A subconjunctival haemorrhage usually is benign, causing no vision problems or significant eye discomfort despite its conspicuous appearance. But eye redness also can be a sign of other types of potentially serious eye... Continue Reading →

Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome occurs when excessive pressure builds up inside an enclosed muscle space in the body. Compartment syndrome usually results from bleeding or swelling after an injury. The dangerously high pressure in compartment syndrome impedes the flow of blood to and from the affected tissues. It can be an emergency, requiring surgery to prevent permanent... Continue Reading →

Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilised egg implants itself outside of the womb, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancy affects one in every 80-100 pregnancies. It is a life-threatening condition and a gynaecological emergency. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is rising due to the increased incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis. Most ectopic... Continue Reading →


Rhabdomyolysis is a serious syndrome due to a direct or indirect muscle injury. It results from the death of muscle fibers and release of their contents into the bloodstream. This can lead to serious complications such as renal failure. This means the kidneys cannot remove waste and concentrated urine. Rhabdomyolysis Causes There are many traumatic and non-traumatic causes... Continue Reading →

Cauda Equina

What Is Cauda Equina Syndrome? Cauda equina syndrome is a rare disorder that usually is a surgical emergency. In patients with cauda equina syndrome, something compresses on the spinal nerve roots. Patient’s may need fast treatment to prevent lasting damage leading to incontinence and possibly permanent paralysis of the legs. CES affects a bundle of nerve roots... Continue Reading →


What is it? Fig 1 Appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the appendix, which is a small, narrow tube (about 5–10 cm) that is connected to the caecum (the proximal part of the large intestine). It is thought to be caused by infection secondary to obstruction of the lumen of the appendix. Risk Factors •... Continue Reading →

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