Usually, if there is blood in the eye it's because a tiny blood vessel on the eye has broken open, causing a portion or all of the white of the eye (sclera) to appear bright red. Grade 1 Hyphaema spotted in ED by Joanna Dias This painless blood in the eye is called a subconjunctival hemorrhage; and though... Continue Reading →

Subconjunctival haemorrhage

When small, delicate blood vessels break beneath the tissue covering the white of the eye (conjunctiva), resulting eye redness may mean there is a subconjunctival haemorrhage. A subconjunctival haemorrhage usually is benign, causing no vision problems or significant eye discomfort despite its conspicuous appearance. But eye redness also can be a sign of other types of potentially serious eye... Continue Reading →

Mallet Finger

Commonly an athletic injury, mallet finger occurs when the distal phalanx of the finger is injured. Basketball and netball players often experience jammed fingers, but the injury can occur because of a crushing accident or even because of a laceration to the finger. With mallet finger, the extensor tendon on the back of the finger... Continue Reading →

Wellens Syndrome

Last week Valentino posted this ECG for discussion and talked about Wellens syndrome and how to spot it. Below is information taken from LITFL about the clinical significance of Wellens and what the diagnostic criteria are. Wellens syndrome is a pattern of deeply inverted or biphasic T waves in V2-3, which is highly specific for a critical... Continue Reading →

What is a ‘BM’?

This is an article by Mags Bannister, Diabetes Nurse Consultant, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in the Journal of Diabetes Nursing Volume 17 No 2 2013. It's a short, amusing read about the poor terminology we use! BM – the biggest misnomer in diabetes clinical practice The use of abbreviations in clinical records is... Continue Reading →

Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome occurs when excessive pressure builds up inside an enclosed muscle space in the body. Compartment syndrome usually results from bleeding or swelling after an injury. The dangerously high pressure in compartment syndrome impedes the flow of blood to and from the affected tissues. It can be an emergency, requiring surgery to prevent permanent... Continue Reading →

Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilised egg implants itself outside of the womb, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancy affects one in every 80-100 pregnancies. It is a life-threatening condition and a gynaecological emergency. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is rising due to the increased incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis. Most ectopic... Continue Reading →


Rhabdomyolysis is a serious syndrome due to a direct or indirect muscle injury. It results from the death of muscle fibers and release of their contents into the bloodstream. This can lead to serious complications such as renal failure. This means the kidneys cannot remove waste and concentrated urine. Rhabdomyolysis Causes There are many traumatic and non-traumatic causes... Continue Reading →

Cauda Equina

What Is Cauda Equina Syndrome? Cauda equina syndrome is a rare disorder that usually is a surgical emergency. In patients with cauda equina syndrome, something compresses on the spinal nerve roots. Patient’s may need fast treatment to prevent lasting damage leading to incontinence and possibly permanent paralysis of the legs. CES affects a bundle of nerve roots... Continue Reading →

Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB)

Normally the septum is activated from left to right, producing small Q waves in the lateral leads.In LBBB, the normal direction of septal depolarisation is reversed (becomes right to left), as the impulse spreads first to the RV via the right bundle branch and then to the LV via the septum.This sequence of activation extends the QRS... Continue Reading →

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